/2019 Archive

2019 Teledyne Marine Technology Workshop

2019 Teledyne Marine Technology Workshop

Sponsors and Exhibitors

DeepWater Buoyancy is co-sponsoring and exhibiting at annual Teledyne Marine Technology Workshop . 

The event is being held in San Diego California on October 6-9.

We will be represented at the event by Dan Cote, our Sales Manager.  If attending, please be sure to stop by our exhibit table and visit with him.


About the Event

Join Teledyne Marine for their newly expanded users’ workshop in which speakers, influencers, and attendees from around the globe will converge to explore, learn and share their experiences on a broad range of products, applications and technology.

​ ​​​​Give us a few days of your time, and we’ll give you access to all twenty-three Teledyne Marine brands.  We understand that your time and travel are valuable. That’s why we’re offering you intensive one-on-one access to 23 leading industry brands ready to share their technology and answer your questions. Our OneTeam is ready to assist!

Four concurrent industry speaker tracks spanning Offshore Energy, Defense, Security, Oceanographic, Hydrographic, Hydrologic, Aquaculture and Civil Engineering. Learn from your peers and industry experts as they present their field applications using Teledyne products and technology to solve some of their most complex challenges.​

Product and software training

Soar up the learning curve with three full afternoons of product and software training provided by our in-house experts, long-time users, and third party solution providers. Whether you’re a new user or seasoned professional, you’re guaranteed to take away new information to optimize your operations.

Dockside and on-water demonstrations

See our technology in action! Gain invaluable hands-on experience with some of the newest technologies out there. We’ll be hosting on-water and dockside demonstrations, combined with technical presentations and Q&A sessions to ensure your full understanding of our products and technology.

One-on-one meetings with Teledyne Marine team members

Get your questions answered via one-on-one meetings with our vast array of Teledyne Marine team members. From general managers, to engineers, to sales, to technical service—we’ll have someone on site to assist you with any questions or concerns via a private meeting.

A Hydrometry Workshop for our hydrologic customers

Teledyne Marine doesn’t end at the coast. We have a full line of solutions for our hydrology professionals, with a track dedicated to your needs.

A great new venue you’re sure to love

This year’s event will be hosted at Paradise Point Resort and Spa. There’s so much to love about this venue with its relaxed vibe, beautiful guest rooms, tropical flair, and enhanced meeting and demo space.

A full day dedicated to network in a relaxed environment

Paradise Point is the perfect place for us to host our pre-conference networking day. We’re offering all of our guests and their families free access to this beautiful resort’s water sport equipment, yoga classes, and pedal bikes for a fun and relaxing Sunday with our team and your industry peers.

Learn More Here

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

About Teledyne Marine

Beginning as a small collection of unique marine solution providers and expanding to a powerhouse of highly engineered, high performance solutions for a broad range of markets, Teledyne Marine now offers the largest breadth of marine technology in the industry.

With technologies divided into 5 core segments; Imaging, Instruments, Interconnect, Seismic and Vehicles, Teledyne Marine sales staff can address not only brand level solutions, but turn-key, customized systems that leverage our full range of technology. Our goal is to provide one-stop purchasing capability, world-wide customer support, and the technical expertise to solve your toughest challenges.

A Sea of Solutions…..One Supplier.

Learn more at teledynemarine.com

DeepWater Buoyancy in 2019 MTR100

DeepWater Buoyancy in 2019 MTR100


DeepWater Buoyancy has again been selected for the prestigious Marine Technology Reporter “MTR100”.

Marine Technology Reporter (MTR) magazine is the world’s largest audited circulation publication serving the global Marine Technology Market. This month, MTR released its 14th Annual Listing of 100 Leading Subsea Companies.

DeepWater Buoyancy is proud to be amongst a distinguished collection of companies that include: Teledyne Marine, Kongsberg, Hydroid, and Sonardyne International, to name just a few.  In addition to being selected, a short article about DeepWater Buoyancy was included in the publication that highlighted some of the growth that has taken place over the past 12 months.

Strategic Growth

In the last 12 months the company has been working to a strategic plan to grow its capabilities on several fronts, including QSHE, products and processes.

Quality and Health and Safety have always been in important to DeepWater Buoyancy and the state-of-the-art practices of these disciplines are ingrained in its culture.  In the past year, the company has validated those practices by third parties.  The company received its registration to the ISO9001:2015 standard and received SHARP status from OSHA.

In addition to continued product development in the existing line, new products added to the product line include highly-engineered solutions for deep water oil and gas such as Jumper Buoyancy, Umbilical Buoyancy and Buckle Mitigation Buoyancy

Lastly, to coincide with the offering of new products, new capabilities have been added to the facility in the form of manufacturing equipment, computer-aided engineering tools, and product and material test equipment.

All of these changes are leading to increased ability to serve the growing market demand for subsea buoyancy products.


DeepWater Buoyancy’s Benthic Lander.


About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over forty years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

About Marine Technology Reporter

Marine Technology Reporter magazine is the world’s largest audited circulation publication serving the global Marine Technology Market. From offshore energy to subsea defense to science and technology, MTR covers it all.

Each issue is packed with the latest cutting edge technology from the industry’s leading companies, as well as exclusive insights and market analysis that are critical in today’s subsea industry.

If it is subsea industry related technology you seek, you will find it in Marine Technology Reporter Magazine.

Learn more at www.marinetechnologynews.com

Nautilus Exploration Program

Nautilus Exploration Program


DeepWater Buoyancy is proud to announce that it is now a Major Partner in support of the Nautilus Exploration Program, an ocean research program led by the Ocean Exploration Trust and its president, Dr. Robert Ballard. 

As a partner, DeepWater Buoyancy will provide buoyancy expertise and engineering, as well as buoyancy products for ongoing expeditions.

DeepWater Buoyancy & Subsea Research

DeepWater Buoyancy designs and produces an extensive line of subsea buoyancy and related products for subsea research.   At the heart of that ocean science product line are the subsurface ADCP buoys.  These buoys, originally developed for Teledyne RD Instruments’ ADCPs, are considered the gold standard within the industry.  Consisting primarily of both spherical and elliptical buoys, the product line also includes the unique StableMoor® Mooring Buoys.  These torpedo-shaped buoys are engineered to house ADCPs and other sensors for high current data collection applications.  By design, the StableMoor® reduces drag and increases mooring stability in extreme flow regimes, thereby producing superior data sets.

However, DeepWater Buoyancy’s product line goes well beyond ADCP buoys.  There are bottom mounts, instrument collars, and cable floats.  Also, there is a full line of installation blocks, modular buoys, and ROV buoyancy.  In addition to DeepTec® syntactic foam products and custom-engineered components, there are also plastic, composite, polyurethane and fabricated metal products for use subsea.

If a client can’t find their ideal solution in the product line, DeepWater Buoyancy will design and produce a custom product.  The company’s design philosophy is, “A customer should have a product that meets the application, and not be forced to adjust their application to an off-the-shelf product.”  Whether that is modifying an existing design or starting with a blank sheet of paper, the goal is to produce the finest, most cost-effective solution for any given application.

Ocean Exploration Trust Mission

The E/V Nautilus is operated by the non-profit organization Ocean Exploration Trust, founded in 2008 by Dr. Robert Ballard to engage in pure ocean exploration. Its international programs center on scientific exploration of the seafloor and many of the expeditions are launched from aboard Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus, a 64-meter research vessel operated by the Ocean Exploration Trust. In addition to conducting scientific research, they offer expeditions to explorers on shore via live video, audio, and data feeds from the field. They also bring educators and students of all ages aboard during E/V Nautilus expeditions, offering them hands-on experience in ocean exploration, research, and communications.

Nautilus Live

Follow the expeditions live online and learn more about the Nautilus Exploration Program at www.nautiluslive.org

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

Mooring Matters: Uncertainty in Buoy Drag Coefficients

Mooring Matters: Uncertainty in Buoy Drag Coefficients

For the next installment in our series of technical articles, Ryan Nicoll of Dynamic Systems Analysis, Ltd. (DSA) looks at controlling uncertainty in buoy drag coefficient when designing oceanographic moorings.

Ryan is the Chief Technical Officer of DSA and has vast experience in both software development and use of software in oceanographic mooring design.

How to Control Uncertainty in Buoy Drag Coefficient when Designing Oceanographic Moorings.

By Ryan Nicoll, PEng – CTO of DSA, Ltd.



It was the summer of 1991 and I stood in front of the first hedge maze I’d ever seen before. What could be more fun to a young boy that getting lost in a hedge maze and finding your way out?

I had a simple plan: get totally lost as quickly as possible by making random choices. Then I’d take my time to find my way out. So, I ran straight in at full speed, turning left or right at each turn without thinking about it.

Ryan’s first strategy for solving hedge maze: run fast, think later!


The plan completely backfired. By a complete fluke, within a minute or two, I made it to the exit of the maze. I couldn’t believe that I got straight to the end of the maze by making random decisions.

Making random decisions may work once in a while in solving a hedge maze. But you can’t make a random decision for a drag coefficient for an oceanographic buoy. These buoys can be substantial structures. Because they’re substantial, the drag forces on them can also be substantial. If they have even remotely complex shapes, it’s difficult to really know what the drag coefficient is.

We’re going to look at three ways to evaluate oceanographic buoy drag coefficients. These ways increase in complexity but still give you something to start with. These three ways to determine the drag coefficient are using:

  1. Lookup tables
  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
  3. Field deployment data

First, we’re going to cover the use of lookup tables.

Lookup tables are a fantastic starting point

They provide drag coefficients for quite specific shapes and geometries. Helpfully, there are often tables with parameters that help you zero in on your particular shape. For example, a lookup table for a squat cylinder shows a few different values of drag coefficient based on the length to diameter ratio. Lookup tables are easy to use. You find the shape that is closest to what you’re working with, and then that’s the drag coefficient that you use in your calculations.

Cylinder drag coefficient lookup table from Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook by Blevins

Where do these lookup tables come from?

These lookup tables are the results of decades of research and experiments. These experiments measured the total drag force on these shapes in different flow conditions. The resulting drag coefficient is computed from the data and then published in the lookup tables for future reference.

But there are also quite a few limitations

It’s rare to get an exact match to the shape you want. Even with basic shapes like cylinders, your particular form may be out of range of the lookup table. Or you may have only a few examples to work with from the lookup tables you have on hand.

So, while lookup tables give you a starting point, it still leaves some uncertainty. This takes us to the next approach that can be used to resolve the drag coefficient: computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

You can work directly with your specific buoy geometry

Previously, we learned that lookup tables were produced by decades of painstaking research and experiments that measured the total drag force on actual structures. CFD software calculates the dynamics of fluids flowing past structures. Essentially, you can use CFD to run your own virtual experiment on your specific structure directly on your computer.

Pre-processing StableMoor® geometry in Altair HyperMesh in preparation for CFD analysis in Altair AcuSolve


Almost any kind of geometry can be used in a CFD tool. Software tools like Altair HyperMesh make it easy to work with 3D models generated from CAD software. This software prepares the geometry for use in a CFD program like Altair AcuSolve. Regardless of the CFD program used, once the geometry is in place, you can set the water flow conditions you want to check. Then, when you run the program, it calculates the corresponding drag coefficient for that geometry in those conditions. This is a significant improvement from lookup tables because you can use much more precise geometry. You aren’t left trying to guess which shape best fits your specific oceanographic buoy.

But there’s a different kind of uncertainty when working with CFD

As incredible as CFD tools are, the dynamics of fluid flows can be incredibly complex. There are also many inputs and settings for the CFD flow physics models. In some particular circumstances, some of these settings can make substantial changes in the output of the drag coefficient calculations. So how do we deal with this new kind of uncertainty? This brings us to the next and final section, validation with field deployment data.

Nothing is more real than reality

If you put an oceanographic buoy in a known water current and you can measure the total drag force, well, you’ve got the actual drag coefficient! Of course, it makes sense that this would eliminate those niggling uncertainties that remain with the previous two methods. We are indeed working with the exact shape, unlike the lookup tables. And we are working with real water flows, unlike an approximation of the water flow as calculated by CFD.

This creates a bit of a chicken and egg problem

We do need to know in advance what the drag coefficient is before we design and deploy the mooring. Otherwise, the mooring is at risk if it deflects far too much, or if it breaks. However, these risks can be controlled with a staged approach using a smaller mooring in lower flow speeds, or even scale model tests in a flow tank. These scale model tests are the kinds of tests done over decades of research to make lookup tables.

What about the cost of a field deployment?

Of course, making a field deployment is incredibly complex and expensive. You need a ship and crew to deploy the equipment. The equipment itself is costly as well. It can be a complicated job to just measure the flow at a site, never mind also some characteristic of the mooring response. But that only shows how unique and valuable the knowledge of the specific drag coefficient is for that particular structure. And that drag coefficient can be used again for new mooring designs and for different locations with different flow speeds in the future.

StableMoor deployment for turbulence measurement by APL

Let’s look at a specific example

DeepWater Buoyancy’s StableMoor® Buoy is a streamlined float designed to work in high flow conditions. It’s a fairly specific shape. When reviewing lookup tables, there are a few examples that are pretty close, but not exact. Is it more like a rounded rectangle, or cylinder? How can the tail ring be accounted for? There’s only so much we can answer using this approach. The rounded block has a range of 0.25 and 0.55, so we could try 0.55. It may seem a bit random, but that’s the best we can do at this stage. The next stage is using a CFD software tool.

Lookup table drag coefficient values for rounded block from the Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook by Blevins

We used the CFD program Altair AcuSolve to compute the drag forces on the actual geometry of a StableMoor Buoy in a few flow speed conditions. Based on the projected area from the main hull, the CFD calculated drag coefficient is 1.0. This is higher than the rounded block lookup table values because the tail ring adds extra drag to the system. At this stage we have a good idea of the buoy drag coefficient to use. To improve on this, the final stage is a validation using field data.

Altair AcuSolve CFD calculations show the flow structure surrounding the StableMoor® Buoy

Oceanographers at the UW Applied Physics Laboratory deployed a short mooring with a StableMoor Buoy® in a high flow tidal channel. The onboard sensors measured the flow velocity as well as the altitude of the StableMoor® Buoy off the seabed. As the total drag forces on the mooring and StableMoor® Buoy deflect the system, the altitude of the StableMoor® Buoy decreases. This reduction in altitude is often called knockdown.

APL mooring schematic with StableMoor® Buoy.

We reconstructed the mooring in ProteusDS to compare the results to the measured the knockdown. Using a drag coefficient of 1.0 for the StableMoor® Buoy showed knockdown within the measured range of values from the field deployment: at about 2m/s flow speed, the system shows about a 1m knockdown. So this looks like the CFD software tool did a pretty good job. This builds confidence to use the drag coefficient and the CFD analysis process again for other mooring designs.

We covered a lot of ground in our search for ways to find a drag coefficient

Now it’s time for a quick review. A starting point to resolve a drag coefficient is to use lookup tables. These represent decades of work from real experiments on various shapes. But often there’s not an exact fit to the oceanographic buoy geometry you’re working with.

The next step is to try using a CFD software tool. These software tools can use the specific buoy geometry you’re working with and provide you with the drag coefficient. While these software tools are powerful, they are still an approximation to potentially very complex fluid physics.

Indeed, there’s no replacement for reality, and so the final step would be some kind of real measurement of the buoy in actual flow conditions. While this can be a massive effort, it does provide a valuable validation of the drag coefficient for a particular buoy that can be used again in similar conditions.

Working with drag coefficients may make you feel like you are running around in a maze

You can’t just pick a drag coefficient randomly, rush on to the next step in the mooring design process, and expect success. You may be doing this if you have only a limited lookup table to work with.

Next step

Request a demo license for ProteusDS and explore how the knockdown of your specific mooring configuration can change with different drag coefficients. Use the parts library to get a good starting point in evaluating oceanographic mooring knockdown quickly.

Thanks to APL and DeepWater Buoyancy

Thanks to Jim Thomson and Alex de Klerk from APL and David Capotosto and Dan Cote from DeepWater Buoyancy for sharing technical pointers and information on the mooring deployment and StableMoor® Buoy.

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

About Dynamic Systems Analysis Ltd.

Dynamic Systems Analysis Ltd. is an ocean engineering consultancy and software company based in Canada. DSA provides progressive and accessible dynamic analysis expertise and software to enable those working with vessels, structures, lines and technologies in harsh marine environments to reduce risk. DSA provides software and services to the aquaculture & fisheries, defence, marine renewable energy, naval architecture, ocean technology, and offshore sectors.

Learn more at www.dsa-ltd.ca

National Marine Educators Association Conference 2019

National Marine Educators Association Conference 2019


DeepWater Buoyancy is proud to announce that is sponsoring the 2019 National Marine Educators Association Annual Conference. 

About the Event

The Gulf of Maine Marine Education Association (GOMMEA) is hosting the National Marine Educators Association Annual Conference at the University of New Hampshire in Durham, NH July 21-25, 2019. The conference draws 300-400 professionals from K-12 schools, public aquariums, non-profit NGOs, and government agencies together for four days of learning, sharing, and networking.

Attend the full 3 days of programming, featuring over 100 presentations highlighting the latest trends and research in marine education, and learn from local researchers who have been studying the Gulf of Maine, learning from its history to protect its future. Single day registration is also available. Visit www.gommea.org/nmea2019 for all the details.

Conference Details

WHO: Marine education professionals from K-12 schools, public aquariums, non-profit NGOs, and government agencies

WHAT: Four days of learning, sharing, and networking, featuring over 100 presentations highlighting the latest trends and research in marine education.

WHEN: July 21-25, 2019

Sunday July 21st – Conference kick-off event at the UNH Outdoor Pool

Monday July 22nd – Wednesday July 24th – Concurrent Sessions, talks, exhibits

Thursday July 25th – Field Trips

WHERE: University of New Hampshire, Durham NH

HOW: Single and full registration is available at www.gommea.org/nmea2019.


About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

About NMEA

Our mission is to make known the world of water both fresh and salt, and our annual conference brings together formal and informal marine educators from around the world to promote awareness and education of the global marine environment.

Learn more at www.marine-ed.org


GOMMEA is a regional network of educators and scientists, committed to creating connections between science and the community, to better understand the Gulf of Maine.

Learn more at www.gommea.org

Shows – April 2019

Shows – April 2019


DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc. will be participating in three shows in April.  Come and meet us face to face.  Share some thoughts.  Asks some questions.  Enjoy some chocolate.

Details about the three shows are below.  Feel free to contact us ahead of time to set up a meeting:

Dan Cote – dcote@deepwb.com

David Capotosto – davidcap@deepwb.com

MCE Deepwater Development

April 2-4, 2019

Novotel London West Hotel | London, UK

Marine, Construction & Engineering (MCE) Deepwater Development is recognized as the leading conference addressing technical issues related to engineering, development, and production of oil and gas in deep and ultra deepwater arenas around the world. As our industry confronts new challenges, the sharing of deepwater experience will play a critical role in improving the quality, safety, and economics vital to the future of the industry.

The mission of MCEDD is to provide a focused event, based in Europe and completely dedicated to the advancement of Global exploration and production. The conference addresses the myriad of technical issues and challenges confronting this industry, while offering networking opportunities unrivaled by any other industry event.

The MCE Deepwater Development Technical Conference:
Engages key members of the deepwater oil and gas community by providing a stage for world-class technical discussions focusing on the technology, innovation and experience paving the way to realizing a future of increasing demand. The technical program works together with the focused exhibition and valuable networking opportunities to create an environment conducive to better understanding the long-term vision of the global deepwater industry.

Learn More about the Conference – CLICK HERE

Ocean Business 19

April 9-11, 2019

National Oceanography Centre | Southampton, UK

Ocean Business is unique. Not only can visitors meet face to face with 330+ exhibitors from across the globe, they can also see the latest products and services first hand with over 180 hours of free to attend live demonstrations held on-board vessels, in dockside waters, in a test tank and in classrooms. Visitors can also attend the Offshore Survey conference and a variety of free to attend co-located meetings held by leading organizations in the industry. Social activities will also run alongside, providing all important networking opportunities with colleagues old and new.

DeepWater Buoyancy can be found at booth S10.

To learn more about the Ocean Business 19 – CLICK HERE

International Buoy Workshop

April 15-18, 2019

CSIRO Marine Laboratories | Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

MTS is having the FIRST International Buoy Workshop.  The Buoy Workshop has been held for many years in the US, but this is the first time the event will be held outside the US.  Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) will be hosting the event at the CSIRO Marine Laboratories in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

The 2019 Conference Theme is “Buoy Technology for Extreme Environments”.  It’s all about making critical measurements offshore and getting data from the oceans back to shore.

DeepWater Buoyancy is co-sponsoring the event and will have an exhibit table.

To learn more about the International Buoy Workshop – CLICK HERE

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

Mooring Matters: Sustained Measurements of Crucial Ocean Currents – PART 2

Mooring Matters: Sustained Measurements of Crucial Ocean Currents – PART 2

For the next installment in our series of technical articles, Dr. Peter Spain of Teledyne RD Instruments discusses the development of ADCP technology and the use of syntactic foam buoyancy in subsea moorings for sustained measurements of ocean currents.

In Part 2 of this article Dr. Spain presents examples of moored ADCP arrays from around the world.

If you missed Part 1, find it HERE.

Sustained Measurements of Crucial Ocean Currents – PART 2

Moored ADCP Arrays Around the Globe

By Peter Spain Ph.D., Teledyne RD Instruments

Moored ADCP Array: Mozambique Channel

Located off the east coast of southern Africa, the Agulhas Current is one of the world’s major currents. It exerts diverse influences, ranging from marine transport and local biodiversity to earth’s climate system.

Different parts of the Greater Agulhas System exhibit complex circulation patterns that can change substantially from year-to-year. To understand and assess causes for this variability, scientists began studying currents that feed the Agulhas.

In 2003, the Dutch research organization NIOZ and its partners began Long-term Ocean Climate Observations (LOCO). This effort included a long-term observational program off the east coast of Africa at 17°S.

The researchers installed an extensive array of tall moorings across the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel. The LOCO project redeployed the mooring array several times. The full array was sustained for seven years and a reduced array even longer.

During LOCO, the upper 500 m contained the strongest currents. During several settings of the array, many moorings were topped with upward 75 kHz ADCPs from Teledyne RDI.

Figure 1 – Teledyne RDI’s Long Ranger 75 kHz ADCP.

Figure 2 –  Six-year record of volume transport through the Mozambique Channel—from moored ADCP velocity data.
Credit: J. Ullgren et al. (NIOZ) 2012. LINK

The design of these LOCO moorings built on experience at this site. An initial 12-month mooring campaign had recorded currents much stronger than expected. This led to difficulties with mooring blow-over and instrument loss.

Even so the observations revealed intriguing findings. There was no persistent Mozambique Current; rather, transport through the Channel were due to a regular train of large (300-km diameter) eddies.

Fig.3. A later setting of LOCO moorings in Mozambique Channel. ADCP profiles are indicated. Scales: depth (m), distance(km).
Adapted from H. Ridderinkhof et al. (NIOZ) 2010. LINK

 The LOCO moorings included many elliptical floats to reduce drag in these strong currents. These changes reduced subsequent blow-over excursions to tens of meters.

The data set spans many years with consistently impressive spatial coverage across the Mozambique Channel.

The Dutch scientists revealed that the pronounced changes in water volume moving through the Mozambique Channel varied at three different time scales. For shorter time scales, large eddies passing southward dominate changes in transport. For seasonal periods, wind-stress patterns over the Indian Ocean basin are influential.

 At interannual time scales, the variation in transport was larger than seasonal. Although large-scale climate fluctuations were identified to be the cause, the response in the Mozambique Channel was delayed almost a year.

Exposing these changes over time – and their subtle climate connection – was possible only with the sustained measurements from the moored array. Surface drifters, floats, and gliders are quickly swept away by strong surface currents.


  1. Ridderinkhof et al. (NIOZ), 2010. LINK
  2. Ullgren et al. (NIOZ), 2012. LINK

Moored ADCP Array: Faroe Bank Channel Overflow

In recent times, the role of the deep ocean in the global climate system has gained wider attention. Cold, dense waters sinking in the Nordic Seas supply the deep circulation of the global ocean.

Using seabed-mounted ADCPs, there has been long-term monitoring of these waters where they move through deep channels in overflow regions, such as Faroe Bank Channel. More recent studies have looked above the seabed plume at sites downstream from the Channel. This work uses moored ADCPs.

A key element in achieving this coverage was the use of Teledyne RDI ADCPs mounted in DeepWater/Flotec’s syntactic foam buoys. The ADCP time series helped to describe the variability in eddy action and the dominant periodicity. Also, the ADCP profiles showed the velocity signal reached through the water column.

Figure 4 – Mooring Design. Teledyne RDI ADCPs are in top and mid-water buoys supplied by DeepWater/Flotec.
 Credit: I. Fer (Univ. Bergen) 2016. PDF: LINK

Researchers at University of Bergen (Norway) wanted to clarify how the cold, deep plume changes due to entrainment of overlying ambient water. Of interest are the final volume of the plume and how its water properties have been altered before confluence with other deep flows. For these features provide the persistent signature of these waters in the deep global circulation.

Field work used a range of sensors and methods. Researchers wanted to see motions across diverse time and spatial scales. In particular, the researchers used moored ADCPs to span the whole plume. Mooring observations were merged with satellite observations and computer-modeling results.

Just downstream of the Faroe Bank Channel, an array of eight moorings measured currents for one year. The moorings were mostly in two lines located in quite different terrain. The first was in a confined channel about 25 km from the main sill. The second was 85 km downstream where the flow is less constrained. Moreover, by that distance, turbulent motions prevail with enhanced mixing through the plume.

The moorings carried Teledyne RDI ADCPs at various frequencies: 75, 150, and 300 kHz. ADCPs closer to the plume were housed in elliptical floats to reduce drag. ADCPs at higher altitude were mounted in spherical floats. Some of the latter carried both up- and down-looking ADCPs.

Figure 5 – Map of mooring array near Faroe Bank Channel. Credit: E. Darelius et al. (Univ. Bergen) 2015. Link

Three 300 kHz ADCPs were dedicated to studying mixing processes. They sat in the core of the plume and profiled its upper interface with high resolution in time and in the vertical.

The currents within the seabed plume are quite strong – almost 1 m/s at the first line. By the second mooring line, the speeds had mostly dropped though the vertical extent of the plume had increased substantially. Of interest was the plume’s high-speed core; it was more confined and had gained speed – due to moving downslope.

To examine blow-over effects on the moorings, the researchers used Richard Dewey’s software for Mooring Design and Dynamics. They constructed time series of the vertical position and tilt of the instruments using measured currents as input. Ground truth was provided by records from pressure sensors.

The researchers wanted to capture the behavior of the whole overflow plume – especially its structure and variability. The farther section had distinct differences, showing strong eddy motions that varied over 3-5 days. Also, the transport of the plume had increased by 30% at that line. The researchers were especially surprised to see how the plume’s volume was altered: not just gaining volume by entraining overlying waters but by losing colder deeper water.

Capturing any changes in the volume and makeup of the cold, dense overflow plumes is demanding. Yet this information is vital for improved understanding of the mechanisms of the deep circulation. For climate studies, sustained measurements from moored ADCP arrays provide a unique time-series view of these deep, narrow, and strong flows.


I. Fer (Univ. Bergen), 2016. PDF: LINK

E. Darelius et al. (Univ. Bergen), 2015. LINK

Moored ADCP Array: East Australian Current

The East Australian Current (EAC) commands the western edge of the South Pacific. Fed by tropical waters, the EAC moves warm water southward for 2500 km along the Australian coast. Its transport is about 20 million cubic meters per second – about 40 times the Amazon River’s discharge.

Near Coffs Harbour on the north coast of New South Wales, much of the EAC turns eastward across the Tasman Sea towards New Zealand. Some residual flow moves farther south, largely as energetic eddies.

Fig.6. East Australian Current System. Credit: C. Kerry et al. (Univ. NSW) 2016. LINK

Seasonal and decadal changes in the southern extent of the warm EAC water have been attributed to altered atmospheric conditions – notably wind patterns. Casualties of changing water properties range from fisheries to kelp forests.

From April 2012, Australian scientists deployed an extensive mooring array across the EAC. This work was part of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System – IMOS. Installed for 16 months at first, the array has been redeployed. The researchers selected a location at 27°S to discern the typical state of this major boundary current. Farther south, energetic eddies cloud the description.

Fig.7. EAC Moored Array (without M5). Black arrows show ADCP profiling coverage. Colored dots show sensors.
Credit: B. Sloyen et al. (CSIRO) 2016. LINK

Across the continental slope, each mooring carried up- and down-looking ADCPs. They were combined to profile currents to 1000 m depth. Throughout the array, all ADCPs were mounted within DeepWater/Flotec’s spherical buoys of syntactic foam.

The EAC moored array included seven moorings that carried almost 150 instruments. Moorings were heavily instrumented In the upper ocean to measure with high vertical resolution.

Moorings were fitted with many temperature and salinity probes for calculating fluxes of water properties. For measuring the upper ocean, these probes had to be immersed in the strong currents. Some issues with mooring blow-over followed.

Most moorings were over the continental slope where the poleward Current is generally located. Two moorings were located farther offshore in 5000 m depths to capture the width of the EAC system.

Figure 8 – Combining three ADCPs to profile 1000 m in EAC M2 mooring. Credit: IMOS Instrumentation 2015. PDF: LINK

 In fact, large equatorward transport was observed at the offshore edge of the mooring line – 27% of the poleward volume.

Averaged over the deployment, the ADCP measurements showed strong currents in the EAC are limited to the upper 600 m. A subsurface peak at 50-100 m depth provided a bullseye in the flow distribution. On average, poleward currents reached 1500 m; below that depth, currents were slight. For this situation, the volume moving poleward was 22 million cubic meters per second – about 70% of transport through the Florida Straits.

Snapshot views of the moored section showed the distribution of EAC currents to be coherent though very dynamic. At times, the EAC was concentrated over the continental slope whereas at other times it was wider and deeper. When the EAC was more confined, flows at depth could be equatorward across vast expanses. At other times, equatorward flow had disappeared.

Statistical analysis of the flow patterns showed two dominant modes where the EAC was either hugging the continental slope or centered farther offshore. In the latter mode, flows nearer to the shelf headed equatorward. These modes varied with multi-monthly periods that were attributed to remote forcing.

A large fraction of the Australian population lives on the eastern seaboard. The influence of the East Australian Current on their living environment is now more widely appreciated. Yet developing this understanding has been – and remains – challenging.

For scientists to see long-term trends and large-scale connections, moored arrays must collect sustained time series. And for collecting this information, Teledyne RDI ADCPs mounted in DeepWater Buoyancy flotation provide a go-to combination.


2016 Sloyan, K. Ridgway, and R. Cowley (CSIRO), 2016. LINK

IMOS Instrumentation, 2015. LINK

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

About Teledyne RD Instruments

With well over 30,000 Doppler products delivered worldwide, Teledyne RD Instruments is the industry’s leading manufacturer of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) for current profiling and wave measurement applications; and Doppler Velocity Logs (DVLs) for precision underwater navigation applications. Teledyne RDI also supplies Citadel CTD sensors for a variety of oceanographic applications.

Learn more at www.teledynemarine.com/rdi/

Shows – March 2019

Shows – March 2019



DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc. will be exhibiting at three shows in March.  Come and meet us face to face.  Share some thoughts.  Asks some questions.  Enjoy some chocolate.


Details about the three shows are below.  Feel free to contact us ahead of time to set up a meeting:


Dan Cote – dcote@deepwb.com


David Capotosto – davidcap@deepwb.com

Subsea Tieback Forum & Exhibition

March 5 – 7, 2019

Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center – San Antonio, Texas

Subsea Tieback’s firm foundation is its conference program. The audience is comprised of field supervisors and operations planning personnel, as well as engineering staff and management. The content addresses new operational issues, challenges, and solutions associated with global deepwater subsea operations. Dialog among strategic decision makers is facilitated through focused presentations, extended question and answer sessions, and networking. This exchange of knowledge represents experiences, applications, and current, real-world project examples. 

DeepWater Buoyancy can be found at Booth 661.  CLICK HERE

Learn More about the Conference – CLICK HERE


March 10-13, 2019

Catamaran Resort – San Diego, California

Workshop objectives are to provide the ocean community with a forum for technical information exchange and to promote coordination among those concerned with measuring current, waves and turbulence and their applications.

Topics Include…

  • Direct Measurements of Currents, Waves, and Turbulence
  • Indirect Current and Wave Measurement Techniques
  • Measurement Platforms and Applications
  • Operational Systems

To learn more about the CWTMA – CLICK HERE

U.S.Hydro 2019 Conference

March 18-21, 2019

Beau Rivage Resort – Biloxi, Mississippi

US Hydro is a biannual conference hosted by the Hydrographic Society of America (THSOA). THSOA and Canadian Hydrographic Association (CHA) alternate the hosting of the two premier Hydrographic conferences in North America annually.

The 2019 conference will be held at the beautiful Beau Rivage Resort & Casino. The exhibit hall and technical presentations hall will be co-located allowing for maximum interaction and networking discussions with exhibitors and presenters. In addition, the conference center is located within close proximity of the piers, not far from the exhibit hall, where exhibitors will have the opportunity to showcase their vessels and products for on-water demonstrations.

The 2019 Conference Theme will be “Our Changing Oceans and Coasts: Driving Innovation in Charting” with RDML Shepard Smith, Director, Office of Coast Survey, slotted as the Keynote Speaker.

To learn more about the US Hydro 2019 – CLICK HERE

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

NEW Pop-Up Buoy for Sonardyne LRT

NEW Pop-Up Buoy for Sonardyne LRT


DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc. announces that it has developed a new Pop-Up Buoy Recovery System (PUB) for the Sonardyne LRT Acoustic Release. The product was developed at the request of Fugro GB Marine.

Like the original product, the new PUB allows for direct retrieval of seabed packages, such as anchors, anchor lines, and bottom-mounted frames and instruments.

Pop-Up Buoy Product Details

Easily mounted to any framework, the assembly sits on the seafloor until the acoustic release is activated. Once the release completes its disconnection, the buoy lifts free from the canister and rises to the surface. A synthetic line connects the buoy directly to the framework of the seabed item and allows for retrieval.

The buoy is outfitted with an electropolished 316 stainless steel frame.  The canister holds 75 meters of 1/4″ synthetic line. (Other line lengths are available upon request.) The recovery buoy is made from high-strength DeepTec® solid syntactic foam. The foam is finished with an abrasion-resistant, polyurethane elastomer coating.

The canister is made from PVC. It has a rugged design and has attachment features to permit various mounting configurations, including easy mounting to our BTM-AL50 tripod bottom mounts.

To learn more about the PUB – CLICK HERE

Acoustic Release Product Details

Sonardyne’s Lightweight acoustic Release Transponder (LRT) is depth rated to 500 meters making it the ideal choice for deploying and recovering seafloor instrumentation and equipment in continental shelf waters.

Field replaceable alkaline or lithium battery packs give a listening life of 18 months and 51 months respectively. A “screw-off” release mechanism ensures a positive release action that overcomes any biological growth and all external parts are made of high strength plastics that provide excellent environmental corrosion resistance.

LRTs are controlled using a deck unit and remote transducer on 10 meters of cable. The deck unit is initially used to program the acoustic identity of the LRT, test the transponder and load the release nut prior to deployment. Once deployed, the deck unit can measure ranges to the transponder and prior to sending a secure release command, relocate the transponder. The deck unit can be controlled via RS232 enabling raw range data to be logged to a PC.

Unlike similar low-cost release transponders It has both receive and transmit functions, enabling accurate slant ranges to be measured, release actuation to be confirmed and its position to be accurately determined.

The transponder is also compatible with Sonardyne’s ROV-Homer and Homer-Pro target relocation systems. Deployed at a point of interest, the LRT can be interrogated weeks or years later to provide range and direction guidance to a ROV pilot or diver wishing to home back on to it.

To learn more about the LRT – CLICK HERE

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

About Sonardyne

We are a leading independent global provider of underwater acoustic, inertial, optical and sonar technology and this is what we do. We track, we position, we control, we monitor, we detect, we recover, we image, we locate, we navigate, we avoid, we engineer, we service and we support. We can do this for you, wherever you are operating in the world, safely and responsibly, within your budgets and to your timescales. Find out how by getting in touch with us today.

Learn more at www.sonardyne.com

DeepWater Buoyancy Receives OSHA’s SHARP Award

DeepWater Buoyancy Receives OSHA’s SHARP Award

DeepWater Buoyancy announced today that it has received OHSA’s Safety & Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP) award.  

The award was presented at the companies facility in Biddeford, Maine by Maine Department of Labor’s Director of Workplace Safety, Steven Greeley. 

Director Greeley was accompanied by members of Maine’s SafetyWorks team. Also on hand was Mathew Eddy, Director of Planning and Development for Biddeford.

Matthew Henry, Plant Manager stated, “We are very proud of our team today.  They worked very hard to achieve this milestone.  Along with our ISO 9001:2015 quality management system certification, the SHARP award shows external validation of our Quality, Safety, Health and Environmental (QSHE) programs.  These awards are not about plaques on the wall, but are about outside accountability to recognized standards in the industry.  The policies, philosophy and practices of these standards are woven into our culture and into all of our business systems.”

Award presented to Matthew Henry, DeepWater Buoyancy’s Plant Manager by Steve Greeley, Maine Department of Labor’s Director of Workplace Safety


SHARP is a program that recognizes small business employers who have used OSHA’s On-Site Consultation Program services and operate an exemplary safety and health programs.  Acceptance of a worksite into SHARP from OSHA is an achievement of status that singles out a business amongst its peers as a model for worksite safety and health. 

To participate in SHARP, a company must:

  • Request a comprehensive consultation visit from an On-Site Consultation office that involves a complete hazard identification survey;
  • Involve employees in the consultation process;
  • Correct all hazards identified by the consultant;
  • Implement and maintain an safety and health programs that, at a minimum, addresses OSHA’s Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines;
  • Maintain its Days Away, Restricted, or Transferred (DART) rate and Total Recordable Case (TRC) rate below the national average for your industry; and
  • Agree to notify their state’s On-site Consultation office prior to making any changes in the working conditions or introducing new hazards into the workplace.

DeepWater Buoyancy is now one of approximately 60 companies in Maine and one of less than 1800 companies in the US who have achieved this status.

Learn more HERE

About ISO9001:2015

ISO 9001 is the internationally-recognized standard for Quality Management Systems (QMS). It is the most widely used QMS standard in the world, with over 1.1 million certificates issued to organizations in 178 countries. ISO 9001 provides a framework and set of principles that ensure a common-sense approach to the management of an organization to consistently satisfy customers and other stakeholders. In simple terms, ISO 9001 certification provides the basis for effective processes and effective people to deliver an effective product or service time after time.  The 2015 version of ISO 9001 standard requires greater involvement by senior management, an increased focus on supply chains, and closer examination of stakeholder expectations.

Since its foundation, DeepWater Buoyancy has been operating its Quality Management System in compliance to the ISO 9001:2008 standard. In the fall of last year, the company was certified to the latest standard, ISO9001:2015 by the global certification body NQA.  “We are dedicated to constant improvement of all aspects of our business”, said David Capotosto, DeepWater Buoyancy’s Director of Quality. “Updating our systems to the latest standard demonstrates our continued commitment to quality products and processes.”

Learn more HERE

About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com

Product Spotlight – ADCP Buoy Frames

Product Spotlight – ADCP Buoy Frames

DeepWater Buoyancy is the world’s largest producer of subsea buoyancy products for the oceanographic community. At the heart of the product line are the deployment solutions for ADCP applications, including spherical and elliptical buoys, the low-drag StableMoor® buoy, trawl-resistant bottom mounts (TRBMs) and diver serviceable bottom mounts.

This article will spotlight DeepWater Buoyancy’s frame designs for ADCP buoys.

For more information, click HERE.

In the early days of acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCPs) most units on the market were designed with four transducer beams. To most effectively accommodate these four-beam ADCPs, buoys were produced with four tie-rods that pass through the buoy and end frames with four legs that attach to the tie-rods. This design allowed for the beams of the ADCP to pass between the frame legs, unobscured.

Advances in ADCP technology have since led to ADCPs with as few as three beams and as many as nine transducer beams. In some cases, a center (vertical) beam is included in the configuration. These technological advances in ADCP design have led to changes in the design of the framework for ADCP buoys.

ADCPs with various transducer configurations.

In the case of a three-beam ADCP, buoys are now offered with three tie-rods and end frames with three legs that pass between the beams.  For customers who have previously purchased a buoy outfitted for a four-beam ADCP, but now look to use a three-beam ADCP, a frame is available that mounts on the four tie-rods and transitions to three legs to pass between the beams. Additionally, a buoy can be outfitted with a four-beam frame on one end and a three-beam frame on the other for compatibility with both systems.

ADCP Buoy Top Frame made for a 3 beam ADCP to be mounted in a buoy with four tie-rods.

When a buoy is at the top of a mooring and a vertical beam is used, or when an ADCP with several beams is used, typical frames would block the beam or beams. And since the buoy is at the top of the mooring string, the need for a top arbor is eliminated. In this case a ring frame is used.  This frame serves to protect the ADCP head during deployment, recovery, and handling on the deck of a vessel, but will not obstruct the beam pattern.

Ring Frame for ADCP with center vertical beam.


All frames are manufactured with 316L stainless steel. The frames are then electropolished and fitted with replaceable zinc anodes for superior corrosion resistance.  Frames with arbors on them are fitted with isolation bushings and allow connection to the mooring line with standard shackles.

Our extensive in-house design, machining, metalworking, and welding capabilities allow us to make an endless variety of these frames to support and protect not only ADCPs, but also a wide range of other instrumentation. DeepWater Buoyancy’s engineering staff will work with you to design the exact frame that best meets the needs of your equipment, pass through loads, and time at depth.


About DeepWater Buoyancy, Inc.

DeepWater Buoyancy creates subsea buoyancy products for leading companies in the oceanographic, seismic, survey, military and offshore oil & gas markets.   Customers have relied on our products for over thirty-five years, from the ocean surface to depths exceeding six thousand meters.

Learn more at www.DeepWaterBuoyancy.com